Dr. rer. nat. Hugo Niggli, Treyvaux, Switzerland
F.-A. POPP’S BIOPHOTON CENTRE
The biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp’s biophoton centre was set up in the mid 90s near the “museum island” of Hombroich on the former NATO rocket base after the Americans vacated the site following German reunification. The island of Hombroich is a garden paradise, a fantasy world which the founder and initiator Karl-Heinrich Muller developed into a union of art and nature over twenty years ago. Together with the neighbouring rocket launch site he acquired, a centre has grown up here where artists and scientists, each in their own way, explore light and colour in harmony with nature
OPINIONS ON OUR WORLD VIEW
Biophotonics is a biological result of quantum processes, made accessible to a lay audience by Gary Zukav in his book “Die tanzenden Wu Li Meister” [The dancing Wu Li masters], published over twenty years ago by Rowohlt Verlag. “Wu Li”, which means “physics” or “structure of or – ganic energy” in Chinese, can also be translated as: “my way”, then “nonsense”, in a broader sense: “I stand by my ideas” and finally “inspiration”. The Wu Li master does not teach, yet his pupils learn. The Wu Li master always starts at the centre of things. If we consider Newton’s laws of motion, we can see the difference between traditional mechanics and quantum mechanics. The former is able to represent the concept pictorially, quantum mechanics cannot do this. Modern medicine and biology remain hesitant advocates of the world view drawn up by Isaac Newton: of traditional mechanics, which is based on normal sensory perceptions and has created a world view of separateness. This separateness should have been laid to rest once and for all through the developments
of the first half of the twentieth century. For when the pioneers of quantum physics looked into the innermost heart of matter, they were astonished by what they saw: the tiniest particles of matter were not matter as we know it but energy. But the most important point was that these subatomic particles were not significant as isolated particles but only in their relationship to everything else. At its most elementary level, matter cannot be broken down into small individual particles. It is completely indivisible. The universe can thus only be understood as a dynamic tissue of interactions which cannot be directly observed by quantum mechanics but can only be described as the statistical behaviour of systems. While Newton’s physics predicts processes and assumes there is objective reality “out there”, quantum physics predicts probabilities and therefore only perceives reality which is linked to our experience.
THE SMALLEST UNITS OF LIGHT: PHOTONS
One of the most important questions in biology is to find out how we and all other organisms take shape. Fritz-Albert Popp recently met the English scientific writer Lynne McTaggert who addressed this question again in her book: Das Nullpunktfeld [The Field] published in 2003 by Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag in Munich. By questioning respected scientists who had gone down a completely new route, she came upon some interesting answers. Many of these scientists conducted well-planned experiments whose results represent a slap in the face for conventional biology and physics. Together these studies offer a wealth of information on the central organising energy in the cosmos which also controls our bodies. The discovery of biophotons and their regulation of essential processes in the cells and in the body plays a central role in Lynne McTaggert’s book. Fritz-Albert Popp, a theoretical biophysicist from Marburg, has been interested in the interactions between light and biological systems since the early seventies. The smallest units of light are so-called quanta which are indivisible particles of energy of varying size. Quanta or photons can be considered the information carriers of matter and are also responsible for the cohesion in and between the elements of matter, the so-called elementary particles.
WHAT IS LIGHT?
In order to understand the biology of light, a brief digression into the history of light and its medium, ether, is needed. In 1887 Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morely tried to measure the absolute speed of the earth in relation to the rest of the universe. In doing so, Michelson had taken up a suggestion made by James Clerk Maxwell in 1875 and developed a sensitive measuring instrument based on the interference patterns of light waves (interferometer). Since Thomas Young had shown in 1803 that light creates interference patterns, it was assumed that light must consist of waves — a view which had previously been supported by Christiaan Huygens, amongst others. All advocates of the wave theory — the counter-theory assumed that light consisted of particles — believed that light must be waves in a medium. When Augustin Jean Fresnel began working on the wave theory of light, he named this medium after Aristotle’s (384-322 BC) fifth element, ether. Aristotle divided creation into an earthly and heavenly world. According to Aristotle, the heavenly world is the world of ether, while the earthly world is that of the four elements earth, water, air and fire. Aristotle clearly distinguished ether from the matter of the elemental world and also from the immaterial world of nous (world spirit) and described it as a particular kind of hyle (matter); the Aristotlian concept of ether is thus clearly one of very fine matter. The Michelson Morely experiment used the aforementioned interferometer to measure how the earth moves through ether which was assumed to be motionless. Michelson and Morely measured the speed of light in two vertical directions. The result was the same in both cases which implied that the earth does not move in space but no one believed that this could be true. In 1905 Albert Einstein (1879-1955) solved the problem as follows: Einstein recognised that the same physical laws must apply in all frames of reference which moved with a constant motion in relation to one another. Yet this claim meant that light must always have the same speed (300,000 km/sec) regardless how a body moves. As there can be no fixed frames of reference against which the earth moves, Michelson and Morely had obtained the correct result. In addition, Einstein demonstrated in another paper that light behaves as both particle and wave. A particle does not require a medium, however, in the sense in which a wave does. Does ether exist then? Einstein’s theory of special relativity supports the view that this question is pointless. Marco Bischof, however, shows in his new book “Tachyonen, Orgonenergie, Skalarwellen: Feinstoffliche Felder zwischen Mythos und Wissenschaft” [Tachyons, orgon energy, scalar waves: fine matter fields between myth and science], published in November 2002 by AT-Verlag in Aarau, that relativity theory opened the door to a large qualitative step forward in ether theory, in that Einstein drew attention to space itself and the properties it possesses and thus cleared the way for a completely new idea of space and vacuum. Until then space had been regarded as the receptacle for the objects of the material world, as a stage upon which events took place, with receptacle and contents, stage and events being regarded as distinct and separate. By pointing out that the properties of empty space are a major influence on the objects and events within it, Einstein demonstrated the unity of space, objects and events. By leaving aside ether for the first time, he cleared the way for an intensive investigation of the properties and structures of empty space itself. And so it happened that, from a certain point in its development onwards, quantum theory again began to fill “empty” space with an ether which took account of the theory of relativity and which was now on the point of stripping off the last traces of mechanistic and even material properties — back to the ancient origins of the ether concept as described by Aristotle. This new ether is known in science as the zero point field or zero point energy of the vacuum.
THE ZERO POINT FIELD OR THE ZERO POINT ENERGY OF THE VACUUM
The history of quantum ether began, like the origin of the quantum theory itself, with its founder Max Planck (1858-1947). According to an essay on creation and evolution in the book by Martin Dresler-Schenck and Marianne Bunk “Ein Gottes Bote des 20. Jahrhunderts — Begegnungen mit Carl Welkisch” [A 20th century messenger from God — encounters with Carl Welkirsch] published by Geistfeuer Verlag in Oberlingen, the father of quantum physics, Nobel prize winner Max Planck, stated in a paper presented posthumously in Florence in 1973: “As a physicist, someone who has devoted his whole life to that most down-to-earth of sciences, namely the study of matter, I certainly won’t be suspected of being a woolly-headed enthusiast. And so, having studied the atom, I say this to you: there is no matter as such! All matter merely develops and exists through a force which vibrates elementary and atomic particles and holds them together in the atom’s tiny solar system. Based on his calculations, Planck concluded the existence of a zero point field of the quantum vacuum in 1912. The great physical chemist Walter Nernst (1864-1941) finally followed Planck’s lead and argued that, even in empty space with no matter or radiation — if at absolute zero point (-273° C) only a vacuum remains — the electromagnetic field must still be in a state of constant activity and consequently have zero point energy. According to quantum theory, even at absolute zero point (-273°C), a physical system (e. g. atom, molecule, crystal) still has residual energy in the form of vibrational energy. Consequently it can never attain an energyless state but only a state of relative lowest energy. In 1926 the physicists Max Born, Werner Heisenberg and Pascal Jordan incorporated zero point energy into their theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and predicted that fluctuating zero point or vacuum fields must exist even where there were no radiation fields. Nemst’s suggestion was generally recognised in 1927 when Dirac included zero point energy in his quantum dynamics theory. The vacuum is thus not dead and empty but is continuously disturbed, is filled with fluctuating virtual (not measurable) quantum fields and these fluctuations still contain energy although the intensity of the electrical and magnetic fields is, on average, zero. Sufficient energy even to be strong enough to allow material particles such as electrons and protons to develop for a short time. Actually it is not a vacuum but really a plenum. The physicist Archibald Wheeler (University of Texas, USA) calculated the zero point energy contained in one cubic centimetre of empty space to be 10115 J, in other words, more energy than that contained in all the matter of the known universe. Although other calculations yielded far lower values for the energy density of the zero point field in the vacuum, namely 1095 J per cubic centimetre, this still means that a drinking glass of empty space contains enough energy to make an ocean like the Atlantic boil. In an article published in the mid 80s in Physical Review, one of the most respected physical journals, Hal Puthoff showed that matter can only exist in a stable state if there is a dynamic interaction between subatomic particles and the zero point energy field which produces these particles. Through physical calculations he also demonstrated that the fluctuations of the waves of the zero point field drive the movements of subatomic particles and that all the movements of all the elementary particles in the universe, for their part, create the zero point field which extends throughout the entire cosmos. This means that we and all the matter in the universe are linked with the far corners of the cosmos by the waves of the zero point field.
According to scientific discoveries in the field of physics, tiny particles of light, so-called photons, carry and convey electromagnetic force. This radiation, an expression of the vital force of cells, was first demonstrated by natural science in the form of ultra weak photon radiation. In the early 1920s the Russian researcher Alexander G. Gurwitsch (1874-1954) discovered this very weak cellular radiation in splitting onion cells. However, this finding fell into oblivion. Definitive physical proof of ultra weak photon radiation was delivered with the development of photomultiplier technology by Italian scientists in the 1950s. This detection technique for determining the amount of light in matter was made possible by the photoelectric effect discovered by Albert Einstein in 1905. Einstein received the Nobel prize for this discovery in 1921. In this measurement technique, an electron is emitted from the photomultiplier cathode when a photon is absorbed. This electron is intensified in a snowball effect by several dynodes connected in series. This electron flow then encounters the anode and is recorded as a test impulse. In the early 1970s, independently of one another, the German biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp, who at that time used the term biophoton (from the Greek “bios” life and “phos” light, force) to describe very weak light from cells, the Japanese researcher Inaba and the Australian natural scientist Quickenden made this radiation accessible to modern natural science again with highly sensitive photo multiplier equipment. It was clear from this that plants, animals and humans give off ultra weak photons. Nuclear physicists from Catania (Italy) at the Sicilian CERN (LNS-INFN) site have now brought biophoton analysis right up-to-date with the ARETUSA method of photomultiplier technology. In the seventies Fritz-Albert Popp was mainly investigating interactions between electromagnetic radiation and biological systems. Interestingly as a student he had worked in the same house, and sometimes even in the same room, in which Wilhelm Röntgen (1845-1923) discovered that X-rays can create images of the body’s skeleton. Popp played around with light a lot and bombarded benzo(a)pyrene, a polycyclic hydrocarbon found in cigarette smoke and identified as one of the most deadly carcinogens for man, with ultraviolet A (UVA; 320-400 nm) light. He discovered this substance had an extremely interesting optical property. It absorbed UVA light and then re-emitted it at a totally different frequency. This can best be compared figuratively with an agent who intercepts enemy radio signals and then jumbles these up completely and uses them for his own ends. Popp also carried out experiments with a similar substance (benzo(e)pyrene) which was practically identical to the carcinogenic substance apart from a tiny difference in molecular structure and which proved to be harmless to humans. This harmless chemical allowed the UVA light to pass though unchanged. Popp carried out his test with 37 different chemical substances, some carcinogenic, some not. Finally he was able to predict through his radiation method which chemicals produced a carcinogenic effect: it was always those which absorbed the UVA light and modified the frequency as they did so. He gathered his findings together into an article which he succeeded in publishing in a respected scientific journal. Popp was acclaimed for this work. The German Cancer Research Centre in Heidelberg invited him to present a paper before the world’s leading cancer specialists at an 8 day conference on all aspects of cancer. The arguments in Popp’s presentation and article were scientifically irrefutable apart from one single scientific dogma of that time: his assumption that weak UVA light was produced somewhere in the body. This detail could not be reproduced scientifically in the eyes of the cancer researchers of the 1970s. If there was light in the body, they asked him, don’t you think that science would have noticed this long ago? Just one single researcher, a photochemist from the Curie Institute in Paris working on the cancer-causing activity of molecules, was convinced that Popp was right. She invited him to work with her in Paris, yet died herself from the insidious disease she was investigating before she could begin the proposed collaboration. The cancer researchers then asked Popp to provide proof that there was light in the cells and in the body. Popp agreed with the researchers that, with financial help, he would build suitable apparatus to show them where the light came from. Shortly afterwards Popp was asked by the young physicist Bernhard Ruth if could complete a doctorate with him. This encounter proved to be a stroke of luck for Fritz-Albert Popp as Ruth was an excellent experimental physicist. He built a highly sensitive light measuring device, supported by a photomultiplier, which could make out a candle 20 kilometres away. In 1976 everything was ready for the first test with plant cells. Ruth had cultivated cucumber seeds and placed these in the measuring chamber of his device. The sensitive light measuring device revealed that the germinated seeds radiated light of extraordinarily high intensity. Ruth was extremely sceptical and attributed this to the light-emitting substance chlorophyll which is responsible for the green colour of plants. So the researchers decided to use potato seeds, which they could cultivate in the dark, for the next test. Yet the sensitive photomultiplier also recorded light quanta with the potato seeds. The light here was even more intense, ruling out the photosynthesis theory.
Light also played an important part for Carl Huter (1861-1912), for he found out, that matter can both store and radiate.
In the late 1970s the renowned French physicist Jean Charon proved these findings with theoretical calculations that matter can both store and radiate.
The plant, animal and human body should be regarded as the result of a development And it is a tangible fact that all bodies obtain from their surroundings all the substances and energy they need to develop and become complete. All things and beings at lower stages of development offer higher organisms their bodies as building materials. Modern biochemistry shows us how these building materials are converted in higher organisms to gain energy and new components.
Martin Rattemeyer astonished physicists and biologists alike when, in his degree dissertation under the supervision of the physicist and biophoton researcher Fritz-Albert Popp, he was able
to describe the development over time and in space of these impressive mitotic figures as superimpositions of cavity resonator waves which fit into the cell exactly. This agreement gives rise to the decision that electromagnetic fields which may stabilise inside the cell determine the dynamics and pattern of the cellular process. As Marco Bischof describes in his book “Biophotonen, das Licht in unseren Zellen” [Biophotons, the light in our cells] (Verlag Zweitausendeins, Germany), Rattemeyer receives support from specialists in molecular biology studying so-called microtubuli. This research has revealed that tiny tubular structures, around 25 millionths of a millimetre in diameter, composed of 13 parallel or spiral strands of the protein tubulin, whose discovery was only made possible by the invention of the high voltage microscope, build up the spindle apparatus in cell division or mitosis. This is preceded by a doubling of the centrioles or centrosomes, hollow cylinders, some 1.5 thousandths of a millimetre in diameter and 15 thousandths of a millimetre in length, also consisting of microtubuli. Cell division is initiated by the centrosomes migrating to the opposite poles of the cell from where they direct the development of the spindle apparatus in a highly ordered manner. So microtubuli control the division of the cell but they are also active outside cell division. These tiny tubes play an important part in organising the cytoskeleton, in dividing and joining cell components, in transporting substances in the cell and in communicating with the neighbouring cell. If the cell does not exactly split, they arrange themselves differently. Starting from one single centrosome, they become interlinked like the spokes of a wheel from the hub outwards into the cell in all directions. In this way they form the framework of the cytoskeleton, to which its other components, microfilaments also adhere. According to the theory put forward by the Belgian cell biologist, Michael Bornens, it is not the cell nucleus but the centrosome or centriole which is the organ which actually regulates the cell (spiral structured protein cylinder). Electromagnetic signals are emitted by it and, as mentioned earlier, it has already been described by Carl Huter as the distributor of the vital force “Helioda”. According to Michael Bornens, the centrosome is an oscillator for pulsed electromagnetic signals which are sent out into the cell through the microtubule wave guide. As there is a link with the nucleus however, the centriole can naturally conversely also be supplied energy from the genotype. It was also interesting that the photons in the living plant cells examined by Popp and his colleagues displayed a large degree of coherence. In quantum physics this characteristic means that the atoms and molecules are capable of communicating with each other. The end result can best be compared with a large orchestra. All photons play together but as individual instruments sticking to their own score. It is difficult for the listener to identify one individual instrument. It was very surprising to Popp that he observed the greatest degree of quantum order or coherence possible in living systems in his experiments. This coherence — so-called BoseEinstein condensation — is generally only found in superconductors investigated in the lab just above zero point, not however in organisms.
The physicist Herbert Fr8hlich (1905-1991) who in 1950 discovered the theoretical key to explain superconductivity which had been discovered by the physicist Kamerlingh-Omnes in 1911, revolutionised the science of biophysics by introducing the concept of coherence of living systems. This involves light with a high degree of order, biological laser light. Light radiation by a system of this type is very smooth, its intensity is extremely stable and the fluctuations normally associated with light are minimal. Because of the stable field strength of its waves, the waves can interfere; this interference produces effects which do not occur with normal light. The light field produced by this laser light has a high degree of order and is itself therefore capable of creating order and of transferring information. Popp found extremely high coherence in healthy subjects at the quantum level. Interestingly, cancer patients who Popp examined lacked natural periodic rhythms and also the coherence of light. Internal communication between the body’s cells was impaired and consequently their lamp of life was going out. Giuliano Preparata and his colleague Emilio Del Giudice, two Italian physicists from the Milan Institute for Nuclear Physics discovered that water can form so-called “coherent” domains. Light is normally composed of photons of many wavelengths like the colours of the rainbow but “coherent” photons are, as described earlier, similar to a single intense colour. According to research by the Italian physicists this means that, rather like a CD writer and player, water is capable of receiving and passing on information from other molecules, regardless whether the original molecule is still present or not. In this connection the Japanese physicist Kunio Yasue established that water molecules can transform disordered energy into coherent photons — a process known as “superradiation.” This gives rise to the supposition that water, which is the natural medium of all cells, acts as the vital conductor for transferring a molecule’s individual frequency in all biological processes and that water molecules arrange themselves into a pattern on which the wave information can be stamped. All these phenomena gave Popp the idea that biophoton emissions could be the correcting mechanisms by which living systems compensate for the fluctuations of the zero point field. According to Popp’s ideas, zero point energy forces humans to be like candles. The cells in a healthy individual lose hardly any light and so have the lowest light rate and consequently come closest to the sought after zero state
Health is a state of perfect subatomic communication and, in disease, this communication between the body’s cells breaks down. When describing the biophoton field, Popp distinguishes between so-called “potential” information, which is linked with zero point energy and comes from a highly coherent field within the cells which cannot be measured and “actual” information which corresponds to the externally measurable biophotons emitted by this field. It is these two types of information which play an important part in bioresonance therapy. “Potential” information corresponds to “physiological vibrations” which can be separated into “harmonious” H oscillations, using the bioresonance device’s separator (developed by Ludger Mersmann in 1978), and enable the powerful coherent inner state of the healthy individual to be identified. In contrast, the “actual information” of the biophoton field corresponds to disruption in the system, manifest in increased photon emission, as is very much the case with cancer cells for example. Bioresonance therapy works like a resonating tuning fork which attracts and finally absorbs the incorrect oscillations. Through optically uncoupled, phase constant electronic inversion of all the individual’s oscillations (Ai), the disturbed biological system is allowed to return to a normal state of health. This state represents perfect subatomic communication via “potential” information linked with the zero point field which is disturbed in the event of disease, as described earlier. The main aim in bioresonance therapy is to reprogram the individual quantum fluctuations and give them more coherence again. This holistic method of treatment can consequently be regarded as a process which, through zero point energy, restores stability in the unbalanced system of the individual seeking help.
Dr. Hugo Niggli was born on 19 July 1955 in Aarau (Switzerland) and finished his biochemistry studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich in the mid 1970s, completing a degree dissertation in brain research in spring 1979. 30 years ago when studying natural sciences at the ETH in Zurich, he was asked why plant cells grow by the examining professor in an intermediate biology examination. He did not know at the time that this was the start of a story which could be entitled: “The tale of a researcher who set off to look for radiating sunlight in cells.” He went to the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research at Lausanne on Lake Geneva (Switzerland) to do his doctoral thesis where he pursued his studies under Professor Peter A. Cerutti, winner of the 1986 Steiner Cancer Research Prize. He gained a doctorate in photobiology in the spring of 1983 on light changes in the genotype of human skin cells through the ultraviolet component of sunlight. Between 1984 and 1993, as head of the cell culture lab, he worked in basic research at Cosmital SA in Marly (Freiburg canton, Switzerland), a subsidiary of the German hair care company WELLA AG in Darmstadt (Germany). Since August 1988 he has been working with the founder of modern biophoton research, Professor Fritz-Albert Popp. This scientific collaboration was made possible by the youngest son of Carl Huter, Johannes Weder. In 1993 he established the Institute for Holistic Photobiology, BioFoton AG, in order to devote himself entirely to biophoton research and its application to the food and healthcare industry. The results of his research have been published in numerous technical journals and he has also written articles for a lay audience in magazines and books to promote awareness.
In his work, the photobiologist and biophoton researcher shows from a scientific perspective what sensitive individuals, artists and poets have known for a long time: it is light which regulates and coordinates everything and develops to evergreater consciousness from elementary particles through atoms and molecules to the biophoton light of the cell.